The Hoei earthquake was a larger event in which rupture spread as far as Hyuga‐nada, incorporating the fifth subfault, N5. Composition and Structure, Atmospheric [20] We therefore examined other findings supporting our hypothesis of an extended source of the Hoei earthquake. Il fait partie des trois plus importants glissements de terrain du Japon, concernant une surface de 1,8 km2 pour un volume estimé à plus de 120 millions de m³[11]. Seismicity and structural heterogeneities around the western Nankai Trough subduction zone, southwestern Japan. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical The worst tsunamis, by number of fatalities by Location, Year and the No. Thus, the effect of adding the N5′ subfault is only a very minor amplification of the tsunami along the coast from east of Shikoku to Honshu, confirmed by comparing snapshots of Figures 8a and 8b in later time frames (T = 15 and 30 min). [25] We first set a 70 km by 120 km subfault segment, N5, on the west of the N4 subfault segment and extended the source rupture area of the Hoei earthquake to Hyuga‐nada (Figure 7). [2004] at the Hyuga‐nada seashore in Kyushu, is not in a location typical of other tsunami lakes in Shikoku and Honshu where large ground subsidence is considered to have occurred during Nankai Trough earthquakes. Yes. Re-examination of possible great interplate earthquake scenarios in the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, based on recent findings and numerical simulations. Le chevauchement de Nankai est subdivisé en cinq blocs, nommés de A à E, qui peuvent se rompre indépendamment les uns des autres[6],[7]. [17] In order to better explain the size of the Hoei earthquake tsunami from Cape Ashizuri to Hyuga‐nada, we revised the present source model of the Hoei earthquake developed by An'naka et al. YouTube. Existing seismic data would appear to be inadequate to confirm or deny this conjecture, but the possibility of different rupture characteristics on the different subfaults is intriguing. A systematic review of geological evidence for Holocene earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai-Suruga Trough, Japan. Web. The Nankai Trough extends from Suruga Bay to the Hyuga‐nada. Tsunami in Japan . Along‐Strike Variation and Migration of Long‐Term Slow Slip Events in the Western Nankai Subduction Zone, Japan. Moreover, an unusual earthquake with very slow fault rupture speed (e.g., Vr < 0.2 km/s) which is almost comparable to the tsunami propagation speed in deep (e.g., h > 4000 m) sea might amplify tsunami along the direction of fault rupture propagation due to the rupture directivity effect. Sanriku, Japan - 15 June 1896. The contrast of larger tsunami relative to weaker ground shaking raises the potential for a significant tsunami disaster similar to that of the tsunami earthquakes [e.g., Kanamori, 1972; Satake and Tanioka, 1999]. The modeled height is much larger than the maximum height of the tsunamis associated with the 1856 Ansei Nankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes, which were less than 4 m at Yonouzu [Chida et al., 2003; Chida and Nakayama, 2006]. A total of nearly 30,000 buildings were damaged and about 30,000 people were killed. [45] Actually, the source model of An'naka et al. New buoy observation system for tsunami and crustal deformation. La magnitude du séisme de 1707 a été supérieure à celle des deux séismes conjoints qui se sont produits à Ansei-Tōkai en 1854, dont l'estimation est basée sur plusieurs observations. [1] Based on many recent findings such as those for geodetic data from Japan's GEONET nationwide GPS network and geological investigations of a tsunami‐inundated Ryujin Lake in Kyushu, we present a revised source rupture model for the great 1707 Hoei earthquake that occurred in the Nankai Trough off southwestern Japan. To download, Right‐click and select “Save Target As…” (PC) or CTRL‐click and select “Download Link to Disk” (Mac). Based on recent findings of geodetic and geological investigations, we present a revised source-rupture model for the great 1707 Hoei earthquake that occurred in the Nankai Trough off southwestern Japan. Such ground surface upheaval occurs mostly at sea but some can be found on land, including at Cape Muroto, Cape Shiono, and along the coast of Suruga Bay. Possible slip history scenarios for the Hyuga‐nada region and Bungo Channel and their relationship with Nankai earthquakes in southwest Japan based on numerical simulations. Nankai, Japan: 1707 Hōei earthquake: Earthquake: On 28 October 1707, during the Hōei era, a magnitude 8.4 earthquake and tsunami up to 10 meters (33 feet) in height struck Tosa Province (Kōchi Prefecture). The rupture of each subfault takes 5 s. For simplicity, we assumed that the shape of the initial tsunami on the sea surface is identical to the sea bottom deformation associated with the earthquake. This created waves which were as high as 67 meters. Animation S2b. It caused a consequent tsunami that led to the sea waves as high as 25 m to hammer into the Pacific coasts of Kyushu, Shikoku, and Honshin. From historical records, tsunami heights of 9 m at Tosa Shimizu and Ashizuri Cape and more than 4 m along the coast from Ashizuri Cape to Hyuga‐nada are known to have occurred (shown as circles in Figure 5 [Murakami et al., 1996]). Figure 8a shows the pattern of ground deformation derived from the new Hoei earthquake source model with subfault segments N1 to N5, demonstrating the extension of the ground subsidence area to Kyushu with maximum ground subsidence of 2 m in a narrow belt from Shikoku to Hyuga‐nada. A simulation of the tsunami runup into Ryujin Lake using the onshore tsunami estimated by the new model demonstrates a tsunami inundation process; inflow and outflow speeds affect transport and deposition of sand in the lake and around the channel connecting it to the sea. Synthesizing sea surface height change including seismic waves and tsunami using a dynamic rupture scenario of anticipated Nankai trough earthquakes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. Other source parameters, including strike, dip, rake and slip were assumed to be the same as for the N4 subfault segment (Table 2). Recent findings in the historical documents claim that the height of the tsunami during the Hoei earthquake at the village of Yonouzu, near Ryujin Lake, was more than 10 m, which is very much larger than the tsunamis associated with the 1854 and 1946 events [Chida et al., 2003; Chida and Nakayama, 2006]. Our new source model with the source rupture area extended to the Hyuga‐nada explains the large tsunami observed in Kyushu more consistently than previous models. Earthquake and Tsunami Scenarios as Basic Information to Prepare Next Nankai Megathrust Earthquakes. EFFECT OF TSUNAMI-INDUCED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND OFFSHORE TSUNAMI WAVEFORM ON ENLARGEMENT OF RETURN FLOW. The earthquake occurrence pattern can be characterized by three fault segments: the Nankai, the Tonankai, and the Tokai, from west to east. Coseismic slip resolution along a plate boundary megathrust: The Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, Depth distribution of coseismic slip along the Nankai Trough, Japan, from joint inversion of geodetic and tsunami data, Sources of tsunami and tsunamigenic earthquakes in subduction zones, Origin and evolution of a splay fault in the Nankai accretionary wedge, Numerical simulation of topography change due to tsunamis, Interpretation of the slip distributions estimated using tsunami waveforms for the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes, Detailed coseimic slip distribution of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake estimated from tsunami waveforms, Study of tsunami traces in lake floor sediment of the Lake Hamanako, Prehistorical and historical tsunami traces in lake floor deposits, Oike Lake, Owase City and Suwaike Lake, Kii‐Nagashima City, Mie Prefecture, central Japan, Earthquakes of recent 2000 years recorded in geologic strata, Descriptive table of major earthquakes in and near Japan which were accompanied by damages, Materials for Comprehensive List of Destructive Earthquakes in Japan, Partitioning between seismogenic and aseismic slip as highlighted from slow slip events in Hyuga‐nada, Japan, Source process of the 1944 Tonankai and the 1945 Mikawa earthquake, Difference in the maximum magnitude of interpolate earthquakes off Shikoku and in the Hyuganada region, southwest Japan, inferred from the temperature distribution obtained from numerical modeling: The proposed Hyuganada triangle. Les mégaséismes du chevauchement de Nankai tendent à se produire par pairs, avec un laps de temps relativement court entre eux. Additional file information is provided in the readme.txt. School San Diego Miramar College; Course Title GEOL 101; Type. Steadily improving high‐performance computing technologies together with high‐resolution earthquake model will enable us for simulating strong ground motion near future. This pattern of vertical ground movement is considered to illustrate the process of recovery of ground surface deformation due to the Nankai Trough earthquakes. [51] We thank two anonymous reviewers and an associate editor for their constructive comments for improving manuscript. Objects, Solid Surface (d) An index map illustrating major place names. Physics, Solar The Ise Bay tsunamis caused more than 8000 deaths and a large amount damage. The Ise Bay tsunamis caused more than 8000 deaths and a large amount damage. The strongest tidal wave registered in Japan so far reached a height of 90 meters. It also corresponds well to the present ground elevation field derived from the GEONET data (Figure 6). We used a nested mesh model that connects gradually 30 m, 90 m, and 270 m mesh model to allow efficient simulation of the tsunami in heterogeneous bathymetry (Figure 3). Oct 28, 1707. In Figure 4a (T = 1 min) the development of tsunami above the Hoei earthquake source segment (N1–4) is very striking, with an uplift of the sea surface of approximately 3 m over the Nankai Trough. Geology and Geophysics, Physical Estimated Number of Deaths: 36,000 Year: 1883. Further effort is needed to establish the shaking intensity in Kyushu in 1707.In the present paper, we have focused mainly on the significance of the elongation of the Hoei earthquake source rupture to Hyuga‐nada in terms of the strengthening of tsunami height and onshore tsunami runup. The 1944 Tonankai earthquake also triggered a tsunami that affected the neighboring coasts. The tsunami lasts for several tens of minutes after the earthquake. The 3‐D distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in southwestern Japan and the western part of the Nankai subduction zone. An effective absorbing boundary condition for linear long-wave and linear dispersive-wave tsunami simulations. Learn about our remote access options, Center for Integrated Disaster Information Research, Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. Damage. The existence of the tsunami lakes in Kyushu was not well explained by the expected ground deformation pattern produced by the former Hoei earthquake source model where the fault rupture stopped at the westernmost end of Shikoku, not extending to Hyuga‐nada. Then propagation of the tsunami over the sea taking heterogeneous bathymetry into account and tsunami runup on heterogeneous topography are calculated based on a finite difference method (FDM) of a nonlinear, long‐wave tsunami model [Goto and Ogawa, 1997], assuming Manning's roughness coefficients of 0.025 m−1/3 s and 0.04 m−1/3 s in the sea and on land, respectively. Machine Learning Algorithms for Real-time Tsunami Inundation Forecasting: A Case Study in Nankai Region. Preparing for the Future Nankai Trough Tsunami: A Data Assimilation and Inversion Analysis From Various Observational Systems. Therefore, the Hoei earthquake is often referred as a worst case scenario for earthquakes occurring in the Nankai Trough. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Surface displacement for the 1707 Hoei earthquake calculated using the source model of, The area of tsunami simulation and mesh configuration connecting gradually from coarser 270 m (R1) to finer 90 m (R2) and 30 m (R3) mesh models. 7. This study was supported by the Research Project “Improvements in strong ground motion and tsunami simulation accuracy for application to realistic disaster prevention of Nankai Trough megathrust earthquakes” of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and Technology of Japan. The height of the tsunami was 7 meters (23 feet). The southern coast of Honshu runs in the same direction as the Nankai Trough. [34] Figure 10 shows the location and topography of the area surrounding Ryujin Lake. It is thought that ground surface subsidence due to the earthquakes results in particularly deep tsunami inundation on land, which transports sea sand into onshore lakes very effectively. Near-trench slip potential of megaquakes evaluated from fault properties and conditions. It had an estimated magnitude of 7.9 on the surface wave magnitude scale and triggered a devastating tsunami that resulted in thousands of deaths in the Nankai and Tōkai regions of Japan.It is uncertain whether there were two separate earthquakes separated by a short time interval or a single event. A set of tsunami trains with large water fluxes might transport sea sand into the lake very effectively and the relatively slow return current from the lake would leave those sea deposits in the lake. This leads to an acceleration of the transmission of seawater into the lake. B2 (Coastal Engineering). Disaster evacuation intentions of persons with mental health problems receiving employment support in Japan. Le séisme de 1707 de l'ère Hōei est un séisme qui s'est produit le 28 octobre 1707 à 14 h (heure locale), dans le sud du Japon. Then, for several tens of years after the earthquake, gradual upheaval of the ground surface occurs and it recovers the subsided ground surface to a normal level and preserves tsunami deposits by protecting from erosion by sea waves or rains for the long periods of time during the interearthquake cycle. The history of Nankai Trough earthquake occurrences can be traced through 11 events, beginning with the Hakuho Nankai earthquake in AD 684 [e.g., Ishibashi, 2004; Ando, 1975]. Oct 28, 1707. (1896-1977), Chinese Journal of Geophysics (2000-2018), International (a) Speed of water flow at the entrance of the lake (plus indicates inflow, and minus indicates outflow), (b) water height at Ryujin Lake, and (c) shield numbers showing the power of tsunami transportation. International Symposium on Geodesy for Earthquake and Natural Hazards (GENAH). Development and Assessment of Real-Time Fault Model Estimation Routines in the GEONET Real-Time Processing System. En plus des deux séismes de 1854, deux autres similaires se sont déclenchés en 1944 et en 1946. Exactly what the intensity was in Kyushu in 1707 is unclear; we are unaware of any historical documents that permit a meaningful comparison of intensities of the 1707 and 1856 earthquakes. Our belief based on detail tsunami simulation is that the source rupture area of the Hoei earthquake extended an additional 70 km eastward to the Hyuga‐nada from the westernmost end of Shikoku. As time passes, the raised mass of seawater gradually spreads bilaterally as two tsunamis, one propagating toward the seashore and the other to the open ocean at a faster speed. Before starting the simulation, we subsided the altitude of the simulation model at −60 cm in consideration of the results of the ground deformation simulation shown in Figure 7b. Properties of Rocks, Computational [2009] based on the inversion of horizontal and vertical ground movement data from the GEONET. It was the largest earthquake in Japanese history. Just after the earthquake occurs, the height of the surface of Ryujin Lake subsides to 30 cm below mean sea level and then gradually decreases to 40 cm below mean sea level due to the dilatational wave of the tsunami. The area of tsunami inundation simulation surrounding Ryujin Lake connecting different mesh resolutions of (a) 10 m and (b) 3.3 m. Simulated changes in the water surface during the inundation of Ryujin Lake at (a) T = 14 min, (b) T = 19 min, (c) T = 24 min, (d) T = 29 min, (e) T = 34 min, and (f) T = 39 min from the time the earthquake began. A long source area of the 1906 Colombia–Ecuador earthquake estimated from observed tsunami waveforms. Small Bodies, Solar Systems Notes. [2003] which is described by four (N1–N4) panels of subfaults might be too simple to demonstrate complicated source rupture history of the Nankai Trough earthquake which should be described by rupture above the subducting Philippine Sea plate and landward dipping splay branch from the plate interface. It had a magnitude estimated at 8.6 Ms and triggered a large tsunami. It was reported that roughly a dozen large waves were counted between 3 pm and 4 pm, some of them extending several kilometres inland at Kochi. [39] Figure 12 shows changes of the water height in Ryujin Lake and the flow speed of water in the entrance of the lake connecting to the channel. The area of the tsunami simulation is 540 km by 860 km, which covers the entire Pacific Coast from Honshu to Kyushu where the large tsunami hit during the Hoei earthquake. Modeling earthquake sequences along the Manila subduction zone: Effects of three-dimensional fault geometry. A high‐density digital elevation map was constructed on a basis of recent geographical surveys conducted by the Yonouzu Promotion Office, Oita Prefecture. The tsunami washed away 1451 houses, caused 1500 deaths in Japan, and was observed on tide gauges in California, Hawaii, and Peru. The hight of this tsunami was around 6 meters. However, these effects on amplifying tsunami subsides ground surface at Ryujin Lake in Kyushu would be very minor due to larger distances, and most tsunami developed by the splay fault propagates toward rectangular direction of the Trough axis but not to Kyushu. Then the water surface in the lake gradually recedes to mean sea level as the water flows back to the sea through the channel (Figure 11e; T = 34 min). Yet the simulated tsunami height at Yonouzu is less than 4 m, which is comparable to the tsunami caused by the 1854 Ansei Nankai earthquake but much shorter than the tsunami experienced with the Hoei earthquake. Introduction to ocean floor networks and their scientific application. Interplate Coupling Distribution Along the Nankai Trough in Southwest Japan Estimated From the Block Motion Model Based on Onshore GNSS and Seafloor GNSS/A Observations. The speed of the seawater at each point is illustrated by red arrows superimposed on the snapshots. Reproducibility of spatial and temporal distribution of aseismic slips in Hyuga-nada of southwest Japan. Les mouvements tectoniques dans cette zone de convergence lithosphérique sont à l'origine de nombreux séismes, dont certains rentrent dans la catégorie des mégaséismes. The tsunami radiates very strongly in the direction perpendicular to the Nankai Trough trench axis (Figure 8a; T = 5 min). Le bilan humain lié au séisme et au tsunami qui s'en est ensuivi est estimé à plus de 5 000 victimes[4]. [48] The extension of the source rupture area from westernmost Shikoku to Hyuga‐nada would produce increased shaking in Kyushu. Ryujin Lake, however, recently observed by Okamura et al. Great Earthquakes along the Nankai Trough-A New Idea for Their Rupture Mode and Time Series-. Researches on the tsunami deposits along the Nankai Trough:. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 17 octobre 2019 à 16:22. In Tosa, 11,170 houses were washed away, and 18,441 people drowned. It was felt almost everywhere in the central and western parts of the country. Radiation of tsunamis from rectangular fault sources has been confirmed to be very strong in the direction perpendicular to the trough axis, while it is very weak in the direction parallel to the trough. Les segments se sont rompus soit séparément ou ensemble à plusieurs reprises au cours des 1 300 dernières années[8]. Difference between Tidal Wave and Tsunami (CSS-2018) Nankaido, Japan A magnitude 8.4 earthquake caused sea waves as high as 25 m to hammer into the Pacific coasts of Kyushyu, Shikoku and Honshin. Un autre moyen d'estimation de la puissance du séisme est le degré des dommages et de la hauteur des inondations liés à un tsunami et les tsunamis enregistrés dans des lieux éloignés, comme à Nagasaki et à Jeju-do en Corée du Sud[13]. Retrieval of long-wave tsunami Green’s function from the cross-correlation of continuous ocean waves excited by far-field random noise sources on the basis of a first-order Born approximation. Geological and historical evidence of irregular recurrent earthquakes in Japan. Osaka was also damaged. Because the water level in Ryujin lake is now at mean sea level, it is reasonable to conclude that a large ground subsidence of roughly 60 cm occurred there due to the Hoei earthquake. Animation S3. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. At this time, a very large (>5 m/s) flux of seawater flows through the center of the channel. An'naka et al. The 1498 Nankai earthquake (明応地震 Meiō Jishin) occurred off the coast of Nankaidō, Japan, at about 08:00 local time on 20 September 1498. Tsunamis from the 684 Tenmu, 1361 Shokei, and 1707 Hoei earthquakes deposited sand in Ryujin Lake and around the channel connecting it to the sea, but lesser tsunamis from other earthquakes were unable to reach Ryujin Lake. Dynamic rupture scenarios of anticipated Nankai‐Tonankai earthquakes, southwest Japan, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/esc/projects/fy2009/12-hashi.html, Animation S1. Finite-Difference Simulation of Long-Period Ground Motion for the Nankai Trough Megathrust Earthquakes. Journal of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Nonlinear [14] Using the results of the coseismic ground deformation pattern, we conducted a tsunami simulation for the Hoei earthquake. The simulated maximum tsunami height along the Pacific coast from Tosa Bay to Suruga Bay generally agrees well with observed tsunami runup during the Hoei earthquake [e.g., Hatori, 1974, 1985; Murakami et al., 1996]. Also shown are the distributions of maximum tsunami inundation height derived from the simulation of the new Hoei earthquake source model (red lines) and the former Hoei earthquake model (black lines). A magnitude 8.4 earthquake caused sea waves as high as 25 m to hammer into the Pacific coasts of Kyushyu, Shikoku and Honshin. Jan 1, 1707. Tokaido-Nankaido, Japan Tsunami – A earthquake of 8.4 magnitude which caused 25 meter waves to engulf the coastal regions of Kyushyu, Shikoku, Honshin and Osaka in 1707. Moreover the simulated uplift of 100 cm at Cape Ashizuri is far larger than the uplift observed by Kawasumi [1950]. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, Ser. For example, historical archives document that at Yonouzu village, at the northern end of Hyuga‐nada, the tsunami was more than 10 m and killed 18 people [Chida et al., 2003; Chida and Nakayama, 2006]. We then reexamine the source model of the Hoei earthquake based on recent objective data derived by the geological and geodetic investigations mentioned above. At this Tsunami on 08/29/1741 a total of 1,607 people have been killed. On the other hand tsunami deposits from the other Nankai Trough earthquakes, which have occurred every 100 to 150 years, do not exist in Ryujin Lake. The map shows the Pacific coastline of Kyushu and Shikoku with representative locations (squares). Auxiliary material for this article contains three animations demonstrating tsunami generation and propagation. [2003] determined that the source rupture area of this event extends from Suruga Bay to the westernmost end of Shikoku, i.e., the whole extent of the source area of the 1856 Ansei Tokai and the Ansei Nankai earthquakes. The Hyuga-nada Earthquake on June 30th, 1498 is a Fake Earthquake. Nankaido japan 28 october 1707 a magnitude 84. [26] We then modified the geometry of the N5 subfault segment and narrowed it in the direction perpendicular to the trench axis. Ryujin Lake is now locating over an area of large (150 cm) ground subsidence. [41] On the other hand, the water flux in the center of the channel obtained from the former Hoei earthquake model is less than 1 m/s, which is approximately 1/6 of the maximum inflow and almost same as the outflow current speed for the new Hoei earthquake model. It can carry sea sand into the lake very effectively (Figure 12a). 2nd ser.). Oct 28, 1707. Hondo, Japan Estimated Number of Deaths: 27,000 Year: 1826. of the Earthquake Invest. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. However, further studies evaluating shaking intensity such as, e.g., based on the FDM simulation of ground motion is needed to completely understand earthquake‐related disasters associated with the Nankai Trough earthquakes. Ichitani et al. The Nankai Trough earthquake tsunamis in Korea: numerical studies of the 1707 Hoei earthquake and physics-based scenarios. Tsunamis and submarine landslides in Suruga Bay, central Japan, caused by Nankai–Suruga Trough megathrust earthquakes during the last 5000 years. Fuji. The tsunami deposits at Ryujin Lake in Kyushu left by large tsunamis from the 684 Tenmu, 1361 Shohei, and 1707 Hoei earthquakes, attest to such a hyperearthquake cycle. These greater earthquakes produce the largest tsunamis from western Shikoku to Kyushu. Wave heights reached thirty feet causing, like the Nankaido, numerous deaths and destruction of houses. Two decades of spatiotemporal variations in subduction zone coupling offshore Japan. B3 (Ocean Engineering). Dans chacun de ces cas, c'est le bloc nord-est qui a rompu avant le bloc sud-ouest[9]. Source rupture areas of recent three Nankai Trough earthquake cycles: (a) the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes, (b) the 1854 Ansei Nankai and Tokai earthquakes, and (c) the 1707 Hoei earthquake. Tsunamis therefore occur comparatively often in this country. IMPROVEMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF WIDE-AREA TSUNAMI SIMULATION THROUGH POLYGONAL REGIONS AND MPI-PARALLELIZATION. These correspond to ground upheaval areas associated with the Hoei earthquake (Figure 2). Circles denote observed maximum tsunami inundation or runup heights during the Hoei earthquake [. We modified the model to reconstruct the original shoreline structure by removing recent artificial constructions, such as concrete breakwaters and wharfs created by recent shoreline protection projects. Tokaido-Nankaido, Japan Estimated Number of Deaths: 30,000 Year: 1707. [10] In section 2, we first simulate the tsunami and ground deformation patterns from the Hoei earthquakes to show the applicability and limitations of the current source model of, e.g., An'naka et al. Our newly simulated tsunami height of approximately 6 m at Ryujin Lake also confirms the interpretation of Okamura et al. Even though the inflow speed is very large in the channel it should be noted that the speed drops dramatically as it leaves the channel side. Following these new geological and geodetic findings, we revised the source model of the Hoei earthquake which had described by four subfault segments (N1 to N4) by introducing a new N5′ subfault segment on the western side of Nankai earthquake segment (N4). 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