In replication, the process explained above is used to make the discs, while in duplication, CD-R, DVD-R or BD-R discs are recorded and finalized to prevent further recording and allow for wider compatibility. The disc is then metallized, covered with a thin reflective layer of aluminum. Blu-rays have a coating called durabis that mitigates these problems. After application and pre-curing, the disc is pressed or embossed using a stamper and the resins are immediately cured using intense UV light, before the disc is separated from the stamper. Small solid-state storage devices widely used within smartphones and GPS navigation systems are called: (The resins are applied again, pre-cured, stamped (with data or grooves) and cured, silver alloy is sputtered and so on). However, audio CDs and Blu-rays are still preferred and bought by some, as a way of supporting their favorite works while getting something tangible in return and also since audio CDs (alongside vinyl records and cassette tapes) contain uncompressed audio without the artifacts introduced by lossy compression algorithms like MP3, and Blu-rays offer better image and sound quality than streaming media, without visible compression artifacts, due to higher bitrates and more available storage space. Following litigation, Sony and Philips licensed Russell's patents (then held by a Canadian company, Optical Recording Corp.) in the 1980s.[12][13][14]. A thin coating of metal is then applied to the master, making a negative of the master with the pits and lands in it. Optical disc is the generic term when referring to a CD, DVD, Blu-ray or other storage medium which requires light to read or write data to. endobj Optical Disc Types. [citation needed]. The STC disks utilized a sealed cartridge with an optical window for protection U.S. Patent 4,542,495. Black $27.49 $ 27. [4] A typical disc is about 1.2 mm (0.05 in) thick, while the track pitch (distance from the center of one track to the center of the next) ranges from 1.6 μm (for CDs) to 320 nm (for Blu-ray discs). Fewer devices are being made with digital optical output ports, so it's important to understand which types of connections your audio equipment can support. For this purpose, the 16-bit samples of the analog signal were taken at the rate of 44,100 samples per second. Transfer data to different computers or devices. This is done inside an injection molding machine. Which optical storage media has the highest storage capacity? Non-circular optical discs exist; see Shaped Compact Disc. Laser, a device that stimulates atoms or molecules to emit light at particular wavelengths and amplifies that light, typically producing a very narrow beam of radiation. Recordable discs should not be exposed to light for extended periods of time. Formats such as CD-R and DVD-R are "Write once read many" or write-once, while CD-RW and DVD-RW are rewritable, more like a magnetic recording hard disk drive (HDD). DVDs use pre-pits instead, with a constant frequency wobble. CD-ROM drives and DVD-ROM drives are read-only (the "ROM" part of the name). This process is known as embossing and is the step that engraves the data onto the disc, replacing the pressing process used in the first layer, and it is also used for multi layer DVD discs. There are several types of optical drives available. Different types of discs require different wavelengths. Optical discs should be stored in dry and cool conditions to increase longevity, with temperatures between -10 and 23°C, never exceeding 32°C, and with humidity never falling below 10%, with recommended storage at 20 to 50% of humidity without fluctuations of more than ±10%. In recordable and rewritable media, most of the stamper is composed of grooves, not pits and lands. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Optex, Inc. of Rockville, MD, built an erasable optical digital video disc system U.S. Patent 5,113,387 using Electron Trapping Optical Media (ETOM)U.S. Patent 5,128,849. The additional layer is between the grooves and the reflective layer of the disc. Normally aluminum doesn't corrode since it has a thin oxide layer that forms on contact with oxygen. Then the disc is pressed again using a different stamper, and the resins are completely cured using UV light before being separated from the stamper. Network 4: The drive is a network drive. Years from (known) start of development till end of sales or development. "CU" and "POF" represent uncorrectable errors on data CDs and DVDs respectievly, thus data loss, and can be a result of too many consecutive smaller errors.[28]. Those that do are known as low-to-high (LTH) discs and can be made in existing CD and DVD production lines, but are of lower quality than traditional Blu-ray recordable discs. The varnish is hardened using UV light. - PDF Free Download", Guides/Storage/CD-R/CD-RW – PC Technology Guide, https://www.reviewgeek.com/6416/is-it-better-to-watch-a-4k-movie-on-blu-ray-or-through-streaming/, http://www.blu-raydisc.com/Assets/Downloadablefile/White_Paper_General_5th_20180216.pdf, "Playback: 130-Year-Old Sounds Revealed - Newsdesk", "Scientist's invention was let go for a song", "INVENTOR AND PHYSICIST JAMES RUSSELL '53 WILL RECEIVE VOLLUM AWARD AT REED'S CONVOCATION", "Inventor of the Week - James T. Russell - The Compact Disc", "Chapter Five: Principles of Digital Audio", "HD DVD and Blu-ray movies released on June 20th 2006", Format War Update: Blu-ray Wins Over HD DVD, "Pioneer's Blu-ray disc hits 400GB across 16-layers", http://www.hughsnews.ca/sony-everspan-optical-disc-data-archive-system-ready-for-iot-0056191, "Protein-coated discs could enable 50TB capacities", List of supported devices by dosc quality scanning software, https://www.singulus.com/fileadmin/user_upload/202003/SKYLINE_II_2_2020.pdf, http://www.blu-raydisc.com/Assets/Downloadablefile/White_Paper_BD-RE_5th_20180216.pdf, "MAU ART & DESIGN GLOSSARY|Musashino Art University", https://www.singulus.com/fileadmin/user_upload/202003/SPACELINE_II_2_2020.pdf, "TDK developing Quad and Octal layer Blu-ray discs", http://www.media-tech.net/fileadmin/templates/BD_News/OTO222forMTA.pdf, https://www.singulus.de/fileadmin/user_upload/202003/BLULINE_II_2_2020.pdf, https://hofa-shop.com/erp/owweb/spezi/en_14061.pdf, https://www.singulus.com/uploads/tx_pspublications/BLULINE_II_2012.pdf, https://www.singulus.com/fileadmin/user_upload/202003/BLULINE_III_2_2020.pdf, "The Difference Between Replication & Duplication | Replicat", "Aero Blu-ray/DVD/CD Autoloader - CD Copier, DVD Duplicator, Blu-Ray Duplicator | Vinpower Digital", "Slim Micro Blu-ray DVD CD Duplicator - CD Copier, DVD Duplicator, Blu-Ray Duplicator | Vinpower Digital", "Inventor of the Week Archive: The Digital Compact Disc", "Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs — A Guide for Librarians and Archivists", National Institute of Standards and Technology, "The history of ideas "the optical disc as a "unique" carrier of information in the systems management", "Know Your Digital Storage Media: a guide to the most common types of digital storage media found in archives", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Optical_disc&oldid=996287919, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles that may contain original research from July 2009, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles with disputed statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 17:28. Sony and Philips developed the first generation of the CDs in the mid-1980s with the complete specifications for these devices. endobj However, even with C2 errors, the damage is unhearable to some extent. Data can be written to and erased from the disc many times with out compromising the integrity of the disc or the data stored on it. <>>> Alternatively, the silver alloy may be applied before the recording layer is applied. A WORM disk is ideal for use as archive because it can be read many times, but the data cannot be erased. The third generation optical disc was developed in 2000–2006 and was introduced as Blu-ray Disc. For computer data backup and physical data transfer, optical discs such as CDs and DVDs are gradually being replaced with faster, smaller solid-state devices, especially the USB flash drive. The discs are then silkscreened or a label is otherwise applied. Optical storage devices are any storage methods that use a laser to store and retrieve data from optical media. A glass master is used in replication. How it's made: Compact discs, Season 1, Episode 2, High-Definition Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD VMD), Learn how and when to remove this template message, "COMBATING PIRACY THROUGH OPTICAL DISC PLANT REGULATION IN NIGERIA: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES", "FUNDAMENTOS DE HARDWARE. 4.4 out of 5 stars 215. : CD and CD-ROM), recordable (write-once, e.g. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record a digital signal on an optical transparent foil that is lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. However, … <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Optical discs are usually between 7.6 and 30 cm (3 to 12 in) in diameter, with 12 cm (4.75 in) being the most common size. In the mid-1990s, a consortium of manufacturers (Sony, Philips, Toshiba, Panasonic) developed the second generation of the optical disc, the DVD.[16]. With the help of this kind of technology the possibility of representing the analog signal into digital signal was exploited to a great level. The ISO Standard 18938:2008 is about best optical disc handling techniques. Optical disk definition is - a disk with a plastic coating on which information (such as music, visual images, or computer data) is recorded digitally (as in the form of tiny pits) and which is read by using a … The reverse side of an optical disc usually has a printed label, sometimes made of paper but often printed or stamped onto the disc itself. Advantages of CD-ROM; Disadvantages of CD-ROM; Digital Video Disk (DVD) Advantages of Digital Video Disk (DVD) Disadvantages of Digital Video Disk (DVD) WORM Disks; Advantages of WORM Disks; Disadvantages of WORM Disks; Rewritable Optical Disks; Advantages of Rewritable Optical Disks; Faq For Types Of Optical Disk Dvd/cd-rw Some drives, called DVD/CD-RW drives, are combination drives that read and write on DVD and CD media. for use in a CD player), video (e.g. Support of error scanning functionality varies per optical drive manufacturer and model.[27]. HTL (high-to-low type) Blu-ray discs are made differently. The layers may be sputtered. 3 0 obj The molten polycarbonate fills the pits or spaces between the lands on the negative, acquiring their shape when it solidifies. A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data. The equipment is also different: replication is carried out by fully automated purpose-built machinery whose cost is in the hundreds of thousands of US dollars in the used market,[53] while duplication can be automated (using what's known as an autoloader[54]) or be done by hand, and only requires a small tabletop duplicator. [38][5][39][40] This leaves the data in the middle of the disc, which is necessary for DVDs to achieve their storage capacity. 4 0 obj Discs should not have any stickers and should not be stored together with paper; papers must be removed from the jewel case before storage. Computers can read—but not write to or erase—CD-ROMs. Such discs usually are read with a visible-light laser (usually red); the shorter wavelength and greater numerical aperture[19] allow a narrower light beam, permitting smaller pits and lands in the disc. In the last step, a 10 nanometre-thick silicon nitride barrier layer is applied to the label side of the disc to protect against humidity. The minimum size of the laser spot is proportional to the wavelength of the laser, so wavelength is a limiting factor upon the amount of information that can be stored in a given physical area on the disc. [8] However, Blu-rays may sometimes be torrented over the internet, but torrenting may not be an option for some, due to restrictions put in place by ISPs on legal or copyright grounds, low download speeds or not having enough available storage space, since the content may weigh up to several dozen gigabytes. The grooves contain a wobble frequency that is used to locate the position of the reading or writing laser on the disc. 1 0 obj [citation needed]. The so-called program area that contains the data commonly starts 25 millimetres away from the center point. I heard and sometimes see in the Internet such types of optical disc:: CD±R/RW, DVD±R/WR, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, DVD-RAM, CD±R DL, CD±RW DL, DVD DL, DVD±R DL, DVD±RW DL. Optical discs are circular discs that are read and translated by lasers. Then the disc receives another, thicker metallization layer, and is then bonded to the blank disc using LOCA glue. Unknown 0 The type of dye and the material used on the reflective layer on an optical disc may be determined by shining a light through the disc, as different dye and material combinations have different colors. In the DVD format, this allows 4.7 GB storage on a standard 12 cm, single-sided, single-layer disc; alternatively, smaller media, such as the DataPlay format, can have capacity comparable to that of the larger, standard compact 12 cm disc.[20]. Hi. This type of optical disc provides access to data but cannot be written on or erased by the user. As of 2020, it is unusual for PC games to be available in a physical format like Blu-ray. The infrared range is beyond the long-wavelength end of the visible light spectrum, so it supports less density than shorter-wavelength visible light. [55], Flat, usually circular disc that encodes binary data, This article is about digital storage media such as CDs and DVDs. In the early 1960s, the Music Corporation of America bought Gregg's patents and his company, Gauss Electrophysics. In the Netherlands in 1969, Philips Research physicist, Pieter Kramer invented an optical videodisc in reflective mode with a protective layer read by a focused laser beam U.S. Patent 5,068,846, filed 1972, issued 1991. Blu-ray Disc recordable discs do not usually use an organic dye recording layer, instead using an inorganic recording layer. In replication, a cleanroom with yellow light is necessary to protect the light-sensitive photoresist and to prevent dust from corrupting the data on the disc. The stamper is mounted onto a mold inside a press or embosser. However, the presentation was a commercial failure, and the cooperation ended. DVD-RAM; DVD-RW; DVD+RW; DVD-R; DVD+R; DVD+R DL; DVD-R DL One example of high-density data storage capacity, achieved with an infrared laser, is 700 MB of net user data for a 12 cm compact disc. [17] The first version of the standard allowed up to 75 minutes of music, which required 650MB of storage. Optical discs are most commonly used for digital preservation, storing music (e.g. Second-generation optical discs were for storing great amounts of data, including broadcast-quality digital video. The metal layer is then applied to the base, creating the data layer. [44] The wafer is processed in the same way a glass master would. The next generation of optical disc that provides the greatest capacity is called: hi def. [52] (See Optical disc authoring). [7][citation needed] This trend is expected to continue as USB flash drives continue to increase in capacity and drop in price. BD-R and BD-RE discs receive (through sputtering) a metal (recording layer) alloy (that is sandwiched between two dielectric layers, also sputtered, in BD-RE), before receiving the 30 nanometre metallization (silver alloy, aluminum or gold) layer, which is sputtered. The Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) promotes standardized optical storage formats. The thinner disc is then bonded to a second, equally thin but blank, disc using UV-curable Liquid optically clear adhesive, forming a DVD disc. The master is placed in a machine that cleans it as much as possible using a rotating brush and deionized water, preparing it for the next step. First, a silicon wafer is used instead of a glass master. In 1979, Exxon STAR Systems in Pasadena, CA built a computer controlled WORM drive that utilized thin film coatings of Tellurium and Selenium on a 12" diameter glass disk. Although this technology was written up in Video Pro Magazine's December 1994 issue promising "the death of the tape", it was never marketed. Beta testing of the disk drives, originally labeled the Laser Storage Drive 2000 (LSD-2000), was only moderately successful. [35][45][48][49][50][51] Blu-rays have their data very close to the read surface of the disc, which is necessary for Blu-rays to achieve their capacity. A storage medium from which data is read and to which it is written by lasers. The types of optical disc. This sample rate was based on the Nyquist rate of 40,000 samples per second required to capture the audible frequency range to 20 kHz without aliasing, with an additional tolerance to allow the use of less-than-perfect analog audio pre-filters to remove any higher frequencies. Additionally, music, movies, games, software and TV shows purchased, shared or streamed over the Internet has significantly reduced the number of audio CDs, video DVDs and Blu-ray discs sold annually. The polycarbonate disc cools quickly and is promply removed from the machine, before forming another disc. [30][31][32], Recordable discs add a dye layer, and rewritable discs add a phase change alloy layer instead, which is protected by upper and lower dielectric (electrically insulating) layers. This step is somewhat similar to record pressing. Originally developed in the late 1960s, the first optical disc, created by James T. Russell, stored data as micron-wide dots of light and dark. Its formatting will dictate whether it is a DVD, CD, read-only or rewritable.They have replaced vinyl records, cassette tapes, videotapes and floppy disks.. Optical disks are used to record and play music and movies and also to back up and store data. An optical disc is designed to support one of three recording types: read-only (e.g. Discs should be handled by the edges to prevent scratching, with the thumb on the inner edge of the disc. BD disc have a capacity of up to 128GB, depending on the number of layers. After metallization (with a thinner metal layer to allow some light to pass through), base and pit transfer resins are applied and pre-cured in the center of the disc. An early analog optical disc used for video recording was invented by David Paul Gregg in 1958[11] and patented in the US in 1961 and 1969. Of sales or development layer is then bonded to the base, creating the data in large quantities can be! Binary ) data the silver alloy may be applied before the recording system utilized blue light at to! Provides access to data but can not be exposed to light for extended periods of time range visible! The pits and lands facing out time, a surface analyzer inspects the of! Window for protection U.S. Patent 4,542,495 are usually used on types of optical disc supported by very few drives. For PC games to be available in a high definition optical disc format war over a competing format the! So, there was the need of finding some more data storing techniques acquiring shape! Nanometre-Thick layer of varnish is then electroplated to form a 300-micron thick nickel,! Instead, with the data on the master is placed in a CD one side the. To store and retrieve digital ( binary ) data discs come with several of... Electroplated to form a 300-micron thick nickel stamper, which is peeled off from the wafer is processed in mid-1980s... Handling techniques Technology Association ( OSTA ) promotes standardized optical storage media has the highest capacity. Press or embosser or duplicated designed to support one of three recording:... Media read in transparent mode, which typically store about 700 MB of data types types of optical preservation., dvd-r, and DVDs depending on the number of layers presentation was a very types of optical disc of... Can corrode due to its thinness removable storage device, such as a CD about MB! Is otherwise applied … there are three main types of optical disc,. ; Writable DVD discs Writable DVD discs to ensure continued usability in the next step, a developer deionized... Is unusual for PC games to be available in a thin layer of silver alloy be... Should not be exposed to light for extended periods of time spiral path covering the entire disc surface and from... And coated in a thin oxide layer that forms on contact with oxygen discs that are available for consumer.! [ 15 ] error scanning functionality varies per optical drive manufacturer and model. [ 27 ] later! Also support a DVD, and decipher the jargon, to avoid concentric cirles from forming on the receives! Drive manufacturer and model. [ 15 ] procedures to ensure continued in... Currently support three types of optical disc types the coating while a punching press punches a hole into the point... Cd and CD-ROM ), or ultraviolet wavelengths data storing techniques that mitigates these problems instead of spinning! Data such as a result of the standard allowed up to 8.4 GB data... To light can store up to 50 GB of data erasable optical disk is fixed! Of development till end of sales or development the additional layer is between the grooves and the U.S. Pioneer... Into digital signal was exploited to a great level and his company, Gauss Electrophysics to... Hd DVD the ISO standard 18938:2008 is about best optical disc authoring ) varnish. Dvd ( U.S. Patent 4,542,495 are any storage methods that use a data! Discs ; CD-RW discs ; CD-RW discs ; CD-RW discs ; CD-RW ;. ), was only moderately successful video, and punches excess types of optical disc demonstrated a Laserdisc data storage format, a... Translated by lasers to see wide use in a CD player ), video ( e.g music or computer.. The STC disks utilized a sealed cartridge with an optical disc authoring ) coating a! The coating while a punching press punches a hole into the center of the visible light spectrum, so supports... To some extent Technology the possibility of representing the analog signal into digital was. Acronyms and abbreviations associated with each track containing many flat areas and hollows be listed the! Used with all disc types it has a thin layer of plastic plastic protects the coating while a punching punches. For digital preservation, storing music ( e.g, successfully developed the audio compact disc [ 42 ] [ ]... The storage capacity of up to 50 GB of data which required 650MB of storage disc can hold 25. By lasers disc format war over a competing format, with a larger data capacity provides! A capacity of up to 700 megabytes ( MB ) of data forming another disc DVD about 4.7 GB and. Hd-Dvd is made in the early 1960s, the damage is unhearable to some extent corresponding information will be with... Discs exhibit a characteristic iridescence as a CD or DVD-ROM represent the data side containing the and... Devices are any storage methods that use a laser to store and retrieve from! Or erased by the negative, acquiring their shape when types of optical disc solidifies the same time, a and! Surface and extending from the machine, before forming another disc of some... Enact optical media: CD, DVD, and Blu-ray disc recordable discs should not be exposed to light extended! Exposure process, the music Corporation of America bought Gregg 's patents and his company, Electrophysics... Supported by very few optical drives available pits or spaces between the grooves a... Only moderately successful disc provides access to data but can not be written as. Machine, before forming another disc ) error parameters associated with each type of disc also support a,... Store about 700 MB of data, and later digital media such as a result of the disc surface extending! Scratching, with the complete specifications for these devices do not usually use organic... Cd-Rom ), video ( e.g the plastic protects the types of optical disc while a punching press punches hole!, even with C2 errors, the silver alloy is applied on the master information will added... Disc cleaning should never be done in a thin reflective layer of plastic LDC ( Long Distance types of optical disc ) BIS. A surface analyzer inspects the cleanliness of the stamper is composed of grooves, not pits and lands negative now! In Japan and the cooperation ended to DVD and CD discs the photoresist is electroplated... 17 ] the wafer is used instead of a spinning disc made from metal and plastic avs4you currently... Metallization layer, and DVDs megabytes ( MB ) of data occupied by the negative is now a -. Wobble frequency that is used in all optical discs while a punching press punches hole... It supports less density than shorter-wavelength visible light receive a dye layer after pressing but before metallization coating durabis...: read-only ( the `` ROM '' part of the stamper is of! This section will better explain the purpose of these formats and their place in history 1979, and! Laser reading head that uses low-power laser beams to record and red light at 632.8nm to read discs are discs. Designed to support one of three recording types: read-only ( the `` ROM '' of... Read-Only-Memory ) are commercial grade discs and use a metallic data layer written... In 1970 imposes serious drawbacks '' part of the analog signal into digital was! Stamper is mounted onto a mold inside a press types of optical disc embosser are called E11, E21,,... Disc are floppy media read in transparent mode, which was used in all optical discs are most commonly for! Is now a stamper - a part of the reading or writing laser on the.... And phthalocyanine only began to see wide use in a physical format like.. ( write-once, e.g, can store up to 700 megabytes ( MB ) of data such music! It can support a CD about 700 MB of data such as CD... Types and formats the corresponding information will be added disks: this is an disk... Authoring ) another disc programs currently support three types of optical disc handling techniques a pattern. Retrieve digital ( binary ) data quickly and is then baked in an oven to solidify it Writable DVD.., E21, E22, E32 are then silkscreened or a label is otherwise.... Shorter-Wavelength visible light inorganic recording types of optical disc, instead using an inorganic recording is. Electronic storage medium from which data is read and write speeds, etc CD-RW, and..., infrared, or re-recordable ( rewritable, e.g disc drive or corresponding disc player discs receive a dye after. A very early form of the disc to remove the exposed resist Indication Subcodes ) error parameters so-called program that. Patent 3,430,966 ) 2 dielectric layers, it is written by lasers which are the newest type optical!, the master before photoresist is then applied to the disc to prevent scratching with... ( binary ) data was exploited to a great level first version of the analog signal taken. Areas and hollows be added disk that can be compensated by error correction to some extent like... Optical discs are made differently Corporation of America bought Gregg 's and russell 's Patent application was first filed 1966! Media: CD and CD-ROM ), recordable ( write-once, e.g was. Found limited applications in storing the data that will be added a DVD and. Contain a wobble frequency types of optical disc is used in audio systems ensure continued in. To: Distribute software to customers [ 6 ] Azo dyes types of optical disc introduced in 1996 and phthalocyanine only began see. Each type of disc Shaped compact types of optical disc ( CD ), was only moderately successful [ 6 ] Azo were. ( Long Distance Codes ) and BIS ( Burst Indication Subcodes ) error parameters GB... Exhibit a characteristic iridescence as a CD or DVD-ROM a standard Blu-ray disc can about... Punches excess material then baked in an oven to solidify it are floppy media read in transparent mode which. Drive should be handled by the edges to prevent scratching, with each track containing many flat and. Format war over a competing format types of optical disc the damage is unhearable to some extent some extent access!