So, since all things are ordered to divine goodness as an end, as we showed, it follows that God, to Whom this goodness primarily belongs, as something substantially possessed and known and loved, must be the governor of all things.  Again, each thing has actual being in accord with its essence. Therefore, if anything is the cause of evil, it must be caused by the good. Rather, in so far as it is evil, evil is the privation of good. Hence, they certainly know what kind of vision it is, whether perpetual or to stop at some future time. Thus, a heavy thing naturally moves downward, but for it to move in the opposite direction is against nature. HOW THOSE WHO SEE THE DIVINE SUBSTANCE MAY SEE ALL THINGS Now, it becomes a form for us even through the first objects of speculative understanding, according to his own statement. But the natural capacity of every intellect extends to the knowing of all genera and species and orders of things. Therefore, man’s highest good does not lie in sense. For other substances, the form does not exhaust the entire potentiality of their matter; consequently, there still remains a potentiality for another form, and in some other portion of matter there remains a potentiality for this sort of form, as is the case in the elements and in things composed of the elements. But there are some things within us which are rendered actually understood in a natural way, not as a result of our effort or of the action of our will: such are the first intelligible things. Yet, this attribution is accidental, for privation, as such, is not the principle of any action. Therefore, the felicity of man should not be identified with honors. Now, this pertains to the order of Powers.  Besides, heavy and light bodies are moved by their generating agent, and by that which takes away any impediment to motion, as was proved in Physics VIII [4: 256a 1].  Besides, the problem of why something is so is related to the problem of whether it is so, in the same way that an inquiry as to what something is stands in regard to an inquiry as to whether it exists. So, matter cannot be called a being without qualification, because it is potential being, in which a relation to existing being is implied, but it can be called good, without qualification, precisely because of this relation. Considered in itself, it is merely in potency in regard to intelligible being; nothing is known according to what it is potentially, but only as it is actually. Therefore, evil cannot be the cause of anything. 2:11). Or, if this is not required, then we will have to say that, in understanding any intelligible object, we understand separate substances. Hence, corruption does not occur by chance, nor as something that happens in few cases; even though privation at times is not an unqualified evil, but is only so in relation to some definite thing, as has been said. Consequently, by seeing these separate substances one will participate in that mode of knowledge whereby the separate substance, while understanding itself, understands God. Chapter 22 Therefore, as it would be contrary to the rational character of a human regime for men to be prevented by the governor from acting in accord with their own duties—except, perhaps, on occasion, due to the need of the moment-so, too, would it be contrary to the rational character of the divine regime to refuse permission for created things to act according to the mode of their nature. He is higher than heaven, and what will you do? But we showed before that God works through all secondary causes, and that all their products may be traced back to God as their cause; so it must be that the things that are done among singulars are His works. Therefore, they are capable of ruling the lower intellectual natures. 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